- P A Cox, Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure,
Oxford University Press, Oxford (199?).
- W G Richards and P R Scott, Energy Levels in Atoms and Molecules,
Oxford University Press, Oxford (199?).
- E U Condon and H Odabasi, Atomic Structure, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge (1980).
Optical Emission Spectroscopy
P Softley, Atomic
Spectra, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1996).
F Bernath, Spectra
of Atoms and Molecules, Oxford University Press, NY
I Sobel’man, Atomic Spectra and Radiative Transitions, Springer-Verlag,
- H Mark, Principles and Practice of Spectroscopic Calibration, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1991).
- H Mark and J Workman, Statistics in Spectroscopy, Academic Press, Boston
- J W Robinson (Ed), CRC Handbook of Spectroscopy, Vols I-III, CRC Press, Ohio
- R K Marcus and J A C Broekaert (Eds), Glow Discharge Plasmas in Analytical
Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2003).
- R K Marcus (Ed), Glow Discharge Spectroscopies, Plenum Press,
- B Chapman, Glow Discharge Processes, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1980).
- Stephen J Hill, Inductively
Coupled Plasma Spectrometry and its Applications, CRC
Press, Boca Raton (1999).
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VCH, Weinheim (1992).
- M Thompson and J N Walsh, Handbook of Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry,
Blackie, Glasgow (1989).
- P W J M Boumans, Inductively
Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Parts 1 and 2, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1987).
- Volker B E Thomsen, Modern Spectrochemical Analysis of Metals: an Introduction
for Users of ARC/Spark Instrumentation, ASM International,
Materials Park OH (1996).
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Atomic-Emission- Spectroscopy, Brühlsche Universitätsdruckerei,
Practical guide on GDOES
T Nelis and R Payling, Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy: A Practical Guide, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2004), ISBN 0-85404-521-X.
guide book is designed for those using or managing GDOES instruments
and for students interestedin learing thetechnique from an
hand-onperspective. It also an invaluable aid on those considering the
purchase of a GDOES instrument, or those using works and what is
involved in maintaining the instrument and achieving high quality
results. It is designed as if the reader has just sat down at their
instrument. It begins with checking the instrument is on and working
correctly, then deals with sample preparation, method creation and
optimisation of instrument and source settings, then calibration and
drift correction if necessary, followed by analysis (bulk or depth
profiling) and the interpretation and presentation of results. Then
follows additional chapters on the theory of GDOES, line selection and
The book may be read from cover to cover
or the reader may prefer to skip to individual chapters of immediate
interest. The theory chapter, for example, is largely self-contined and
presents an up-to-date account of the glow discharge plasma, of
sputtering, and quantitative analysis. Several chapters deal with
calibration, probably the most challenging area for GDOES operators,
including all aspects of calibration: the number and selection of
calibration samples, the choice and optimisation of the calibration
function, validation, and the calculation of uncertainties. The
descriptions are not aimed at particular instruments or manufacturers
and are therefore designed for use by everyone working in the field.
Reference book on GDOES
R Payling, D G Jones & A Bengtson (Eds), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry, John Wiley & Sons, UK (1997), ISBN 0-471-96683-5.
Refence on Emission lines including CD
R Payling and
P Larkins, Optical Emission Lines of the Elements, John Wiley Sons, Chichester (2000),
emission lines of the element is a unique CD-ROM and print package
comprising a fully searchable electronic database of emission lines for
nearly 90 elements and q practical reference book.
database has been compiled using an algorithm which calculated all the
electronic emission lines for each element base on their electronic
structure. This product therefore contains wavelengths for lines that
are very weak and only observable under optimum conditions. This is a
break away from the traditional compendia of emission lines which
consists of experimentally measured lines and intensities.
The CD-ROM provides many valuable features including:
about all atomic and first ionic states lines in the range 100 nm to900
nm (in air of vacuum). Associated with the known energy levels for the
most elements from hydrogen to Uranium.
- Calculated transition probabilities for all lines
- A database that allows the user to plot the calculated spectrum matching their selection of elements and wavelength range.
parameters so that the database can be customised to match the general
characteristics of the users own source and spectrometer.
the CD-ROM is a reference handbook which includes a detailed
introduction explaining the electronic structure of the atom and how
the wavelengths and intensities which the text and the CD6ROmM were
calculated. The handbook also contains extensive tables showing 35000
of the strongest lines for all atoms and ions arranged by element and
Written by experts in the field of optical
emission this multimedia package is indispensable to researchers and
analysts using other OES techniques as well as libraries of
institutions involved in the research and teaching atomic spectroscopy
and manufacturers of ICP, arc, spark and glow discharge spectrometers.