Atomic Structure

  1. P A Cox, Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure, Oxford University Press, Oxford (199?).
  2. W G Richards and P R Scott, Energy Levels in Atoms and Molecules, Oxford University Press, Oxford (199?).
  3. E U Condon and H Odabasi, Atomic Structure, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1980).

Optical Emission Spectroscopy

  1. T P Softley, Atomic Spectra, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1996).
  2. P F Bernath, Spectra of Atoms and Molecules, Oxford University Press, NY (1995).
  3. I I Sobel’man, Atomic Spectra and Radiative Transitions, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1992).


  1. H Mark, Principles and Practice of Spectroscopic Calibration, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1991).
  2. H Mark and J Workman, Statistics in Spectroscopy, Academic Press, Boston (1991).
  3. J W Robinson (Ed), CRC Handbook of Spectroscopy, Vols I-III, CRC Press, Ohio (1974). 
  • Glow Discharges

    1. R K Marcus and J A C Broekaert (Eds), Glow Discharge Plasmas in Analytical Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2003).
    2. R K Marcus (Ed), Glow Discharge Spectroscopies, Plenum Press, NY (1993).
    3. B Chapman, Glow Discharge Processes, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1980).


    1. Stephen J Hill, Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry and its Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999).
    2. A Montaser and D W Golightly, Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, VCH, Weinheim (1992).
    3. M Thompson and J N Walsh, Handbook of Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry, Blackie, Glasgow (1989).
    4. P W J M Boumans, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Parts 1 and 2, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1987).

    Spark emission

    1. Volker B E Thomsen, Modern Spectrochemical Analysis of Metals: an Introduction for Users of ARC/Spark Instrumentation, ASM International, Materials Park OH (1996).
    2. K Slickers, Automatic Atomic-Emission- Spectroscopy, Brühlsche Universitätsdruckerei, Griessen (1993). 
  • Practical guide on GDOES

    [GDOES: Practical Guide]

    T Nelis and R Payling, Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy: A Practical Guide, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2004), ISBN 0-85404-521-X.

    This guide book is designed for those using or managing GDOES instruments and for students interestedin learing thetechnique from an hand-onperspective. It also an invaluable aid on those considering the purchase of a GDOES instrument, or those using works and what is involved in maintaining the instrument and achieving high quality results. It is designed as if the reader has just sat down at their instrument. It begins with checking the instrument is on and working correctly, then deals with sample preparation, method creation and optimisation of instrument and source settings, then calibration and drift correction if necessary, followed by analysis (bulk or depth profiling) and the interpretation and presentation of results. Then follows additional chapters on the theory of GDOES, line selection and trouble shooting.

    The book may be read from cover to cover or the reader may prefer to skip to individual chapters of immediate interest. The theory chapter, for example, is largely self-contined and presents an up-to-date account of the glow discharge plasma, of sputtering, and quantitative analysis. Several chapters deal with calibration, probably the most challenging area for GDOES operators, including all aspects of calibration: the number and selection of calibration samples, the choice and optimisation of the calibration function, validation, and the calculation of uncertainties. The descriptions are not aimed at particular instruments or manufacturers and are therefore designed for use by everyone working in the field.

    [Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry]

    Reference book on GDOES

    R Payling, D G Jones & A Bengtson (Eds), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry, John Wiley & Sons, UK (1997), ISBN 0-471-96683-5.


    Refence on Emission lines including CD

    R Payling and P Larkins, Optical Emission Lines of the Elements, John Wiley Sons, Chichester (2000), ISBN 0-471-62378-4.

    Optical emission lines of the element is a unique CD-ROM and print package comprising a fully searchable electronic database of emission lines for nearly 90 elements and q practical reference book.

    The database has been compiled using an algorithm which calculated all the electronic emission lines for each element base on their electronic structure. This product therefore contains wavelengths for lines that are very weak and only observable under optimum conditions. This is a break away from the traditional compendia of emission lines which consists of experimentally measured lines and intensities.
    The CD-ROM provides many valuable features including:

    Accompanying the CD-ROM is a reference handbook which includes a detailed introduction explaining the electronic structure of the atom and how the wavelengths and intensities which the text and the CD6ROmM were calculated. The handbook also contains extensive tables showing 35000  of the strongest lines for all atoms and ions arranged by element and by wavelength.

    Written by experts in the field of optical emission this multimedia package is indispensable to researchers and analysts using other OES techniques as well as libraries of institutions involved in the research and teaching atomic spectroscopy and manufacturers of ICP, arc, spark and glow discharge spectrometers.